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Wastewater Treatment Plant Process

Wastewater Treatment

Table of Contents

What is Wastewater Treatment System

What is the purpose of a wastewater system?

Components of wastewater treatment plant system:

What is normally removed by a wastewater treatment plant system?

What is the process of a wastewater treatment plant?

What is Wastewater Treatment System

Treatment systems for industrial wastewater are frequently necessary to maintain compliance with safety precautions and discharge laws for businesses that generate wastewater as part of their process.

 In order to protect human health, the environment, the best industrial wastewater system is essential (particularly if the wastewater is reprocessed). An environmental fine and legal action could be avoided if wastewater is correctly discharged into a POTW (usually under a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System).

What is the purpose of a wastewater system?

It is a collection of many technologies that work together to meet specialized wastewater treatment demands.

Having a wastewater treatment system that can adapt to changes in treatment needs can save money in the long run by avoiding costly replacements and upgrades.

The following should be handled by a robust wastewater treatment plant system:

  • Variation in contamination and movement in the process
  • Chemical quantities must be adjusted to account for changes in water chemistry.
  • Water effluent regulations could be altered in the future.

Components of wastewater treatment plant system:

In general, the components of a wastewater treatment plant system contain at least one of the following:

Treatment of chemical feed precipitation, flocculation and suspended solids filtration to eliminate all the residual trace metals and particles from the water,

Post-treatment pH adjustment and monitoring (depending on the level of automation process)

In most cases, these conventional components are sufficient, but if the plant demands a more customised system, there may be additional features needed to implement. Some examples are food and beverage facilities, where a biological treatment technique is needed to lower BOD (biochemical oxygen demand).

What is normally removed by a wastewater treatment plant system?

A wastewater treatment plant system could include any or all of the following technologies:

Oxygen consumption in biochemistry

In order for aerobic organisms to split into smaller molecules, they require a certain amount of dissolved oxygen. High BOD levels indicate an increased dilution of biodegradable material in wastewater, which can be triggered by the input of contaminants such as waste, wash-down from food preparation, or fertilizer runoff.

Phosphates and Nitrates

Non-removal of high quantities in wastewater of nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate may lead to an upsurge in BOD, extensive weed and algal development, as well as phytoplankton blooms in the nearby environment. Depletion of oxygen in the water may lead to the death of species and the formation of ecological dead zones.


When pathogens are present, they can cause everything from acute illness to serious digestive difficulties to death. These microorganisms include bacteria and viruses as well as fungus and other microbes. Non-treated domestic and industrial wastewater can transmit diseases including salmonellosis, cholera, hepatitis, dysentery, botulism, etc because of the presence of hazardous bacteria.


As a result of numerous industries and production processes, metals may cause substantial harm to human health and the environment and wastewater are not treated adequately. Because these metal substances don't decompose and they tend to collect, they're highly hazardous to the environment.

The total amount of solids in the solution

Organic and inorganic solid debris within the wastewater can harm aquatic life. As a result, the TSS toxicity level will increase. TSS is capable of reducing the amount of oxygen in the water and killing insects. They are also capable of clogging and fouling pipelines and equipment.

Solids in solution as a whole

The presence of metals, minerals, and salts in wastewater is referred to as total dissolved solids (TDS). In addition to harming aquatic life and contaminating soil, these pollutants have a tendency to leach into the groundwater supply. Toxic Dissolved Solids (TDS) can be found in effluent from any industry.

Chemicals that have been synthesized

In manufacturing plants, pesticides and many other chemicals are applied and can be transferred to individuals and the ecosystem through wastewater, resulting in environmental and human harm.

There are a variety of pesticides, PCBs, diethylstilbestrol, dioxin, and other diethylstilbestrol-related compounds that are commonly discovered in wastewater. They are known as "endocrine disruptors and these chemicals can affect the activities of hormones in the body.

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What is the process of a wastewater treatment plant?

Although specific treatment methods may differ, the following phases are often included in a wastewater treatment plant process:


There are numerous chemicals that can be applied to remove the numerous suspended particles and other pollutants. Normally one or two mixing reactors are used to add certain chemicals to the water, resulting in the formation of heavier particles that settle to the bottom of the tank. Aluminium-based coagulants, such as poly-aluminium chloride and alum are the most commonly employed.

Coagulation of the particles can be aided by adjusting the pH just a little bit.


Coagulated particles are mixed with long-chain polymers in the flocculation chamber until they form visible, settleable snowflakes that can be collected.


When it comes to wastewater treatment, the gravity settler is a well-known device where flocculated particles and water both flow into the chamber and disseminate out of it. Solids settle to the base of the clarifier, as a result of a gradual settling process and therefore water rises to the top and spill-over at the clarifier's perimeter.

Following this process, material that has been separated into fine particles is raked to one end of the clarifier, where it is mixed with other material and then sent to the bottom for dewatering or sludge handling in a separate process.

Filter presses remove all of the water from the sludge during the dewatering procedure. The sludge water is placed on the press and clasped between two belts, and the slurry is then placed in a large hopper that either goes to a landfill or a place where the sludge can be used. As a general rule, this process's wastewater is recycled into the clarifier's feed water.


In most cases, gravity sand filters are the next step in the process. In these large areas, two to four feet of crushed silica sand with rough edges are placed, creating a filter. There are generally two to four feet of depth in the filter where sand is placed, where it is packed together firmly. Afterwards, the feed water is recirculated, which removes the solids from the water.

Using a pressure multimedia filter in place of gravity sand filtration is an economical option for smaller-scale industrial systems.

In some cases, ultrafiltration (UF) can be utilised in place of the gravity sand filter for a compressive clarification process. For the first time, membranes are being used for treatment, pumping wastewater straight from the source through the UF and removing the complete clarifier/filtration train.


Disinfection is used to get rid of any remaining germs in the water. This may be done prior to filtration in order to disinfect and maintain the cleanliness of the filters.

You'll need to apply additional disinfectant if your system does this step before filtering because the filters will be cleansed and clear of bacteria. Chlorine kills germs at the source, resulting in reduced fouling.


Typically, when wastewater is recycled, it is placed into a holding tank where it can be re-used as and when needed. Water towers and other collecting and distribution systems are used to pump the treated water around the city if it is to be used for municipal purposes.


I hope this blog will help you understand the wastewater treatment system, its purpose, its process and various important elements in a detailed manner. 

Please feel free to like, share and comment.

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Founder at gcelab.com, Pooja is an Entrepreneur unlocking human potential. Working in the Principles of Lean Start-up, Pooja believes in Transparency and User Happiness the most. Pooja’s background in teaching gives her a sophisticated grasp on even the most tedious aspect of course building. She is passionate about people who believe that good is not enough.

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