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What is the Purpose of Pile Cap Design? 13 Important Points

Table of Contents

What are a Pile and Pile Cap?

Can Pile foundations withstand more weight than spread footing?

 What are pile caps and their functions?

Features of Pile Cap

Shape and Size of Pile Caps:

Depth of Pile Cap:

What are the different types of Pile foundations?

Depending on the Function or Use:

Materials and Construction Methods for Soil Compactor Piles:

 When should you use for bored piles and driven piles?

How do you size a Pile Cap?

How do you calculate Pile spacing?

How to Install Piling Caps?


What are a Pile and Pile Cap?

A pile is a long cylinder of strong material, like concrete that is pushed into the ground to provide a stable foundation for structures built on top of it. The following scenarios need the usage of pile foundations: When a layer of poor soil is present at the surface. Because this layer is unable to hold the load of the building, the loads must be transmitted to the layer of firmer soil or hard rock that lies beneath the weak layer.

When a structure has a lot of large, concentrated loads, as a high-rise skyscraper, a bridge, or a water tank. To create an appropriate stable foundation, a pile cap is a dense concrete pad that sits on concrete piles or timber piles put into the soft or less-strong ground. It is frequently found in the deep foundation of a building, usually a multi-story structure or at support level or heavy equipment, or in the deep foundation of a bridge.

The load of the building is distributed into the piles by the cast concrete pile top. A "raft," which is a concrete foundation floor sitting directly on soft soil that may be prone to subsidence, is a comparable construction to a pile cap.

Can Pile foundations withstand more weight than spread footing?

Yes, the load-carrying capacity of pile foundation is superior to spread footings. The pile foundation transmits the load to the hard strata.

 What are pile caps and their functions?

Pile caps are dense reinforced concrete mats that sit over “concrete or wooden piles (driven, bored, or cast-in-place) to provide foundation stability. The major aim of the pile cap is to transmit the load of the columns to the underlying piles, which is usually too large for large buildings.

A rough foundation is a comparable form of foundation for pile caps. The load from the columns is carried directly through the raft to the mud straight in the case of the raft, which is a dense and broad RCC slab lying immediately at the base. The raft can only be utilised if the soil layer is stable and capable of sustaining large weights without failing; otherwise, piles and pile caps are typically used.

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Features of Pile Cap

  • The M25 mix is the minimal concrete grade that can be used to make heaps and pile caps.
  • A full pile cap can be fitted intact in the case of minor piles, such as 2-3 piles.
  • Casting is done in layers for larger pile caps.
  • The column reinforcing bars are embedded in the pile caps up to the length of their growth.
  • After casting, the pile caps are fixed for 28/29 days and the shuttering is detached, the adjacent soil is flattened and compacted using a compactor.
  • When a number of piles are grouped, piles are constructed like a raft instead of piles.

Shape and Size of Pile Caps:

Pile caps are dense reinforced concrete mats that provide foundation stability by resting on concrete or woodpiles (driven or bored and cast-in-situ). These pile cap sizes lower the amount of planning area required for a symmetrical pile layout in relation to the load. The pile cap should allow the outer pile to exceed a minimum of 150 mm, although it should not be excessive, typically not exceeding the pile's diameter.

Depth of Pile Cap:

Depth of pile cap is dependent on the following factors:

  • Shear Capability of Pile Cap.
  • Soil shrinkage and swelling.
  • Frost attacks.
  • Pile anchorage.
  • Water table & soluble sulfates.
  • Holding bolt assemblages for steel columns.

Because it is subjected to concentrated loads, the pile cap is usually deeper than the pad footing. This results in substantially stronger bending moments and shear forces. The additional depth, on the other hand, offers the pile top more rigidity, which helps transmit the load uniformly across all piles”.

What are the different types of Pile foundations?

Pile foundations are classed according to their function, materials, and installation procedure, among other factors. The types of piling foundations utilised in construction are as follows:

Depending on the Function or Use:

Materials and Construction Methods for Soil Compactor Piles:

  • Piles of wood
  • Piles of Concrete
  • Piles of steel
  • Piles made of composite materials

Read More:

Why does Concrete need Reinforcement? 6 Important Points

What is the Function of Bridge Foundation or Pier and its Types? 5 Important Points

Pre-stressed Concrete, Pre-tensioning and Post-tensioning: 3 Important Points

 When should you use for bored piles and driven piles?

Driven piles are driven straight in and transmit the load by friction and/or bearing, whereas bored pier foundations are normally poured in place and transfer the load only through bearing Bored pier foundations are typically shallower than driven pile foundations.

When the top strata consist of degraded rock overlying strata of sound rock, bored pier foundations are preferred. It becomes difficult to drive bearing piles into the decomposed rock in this situation. Bored pier foundations can be easily erected in stiff clays that offer significant resistance to the drive of a bearing pile.

How do you size a Pile Cap?

Dimensions of the Pile Cap Plan. The number of piles required to support the weight determines the plan dimensions of a pile cap. as well as... Shear Strength and Thickness of Pile Caps The following important criteria are used to determine the thickness of the pile cap: 1) Shear needs in both directions around the column.

How do you calculate Pile spacing?

The pile should be at least 3 feet wide, 3 feet across, and 3 feet tall in order to reach optimal temperatures (one cubic yard). That is the smallest compost pile that can generate temperatures high enough to kill weeds and pathogens, but smaller compost piles will also work less efficiently.

How to Install Piling Caps?

Piling caps are available in a range of sizes. It is recommended to provide 26 sizes of piling caps in two shapes:

  1. Round and
  2. Square, ranging from 6 inches to 18 and a half inches.

To begin, make sure the pilings are at the height you want them to be. Before you measure for the piling caps, make any final cuts. Making cuts afterwards may change the measurement of the pile, resulting in a poor-fitting hat, so make any necessary changes to the heaps before measuring for and purchasing pile caps.

I hope the blog provides you with a sound understanding of the Pile Cap Design and its associated features.

Please feel free to like, share and comment.


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