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A pile is a long cylinder of strong material, like concrete that is pushed into the ground to provide a stable foundation for structures built on top of it. The following scenarios need the usage of pile foundations: When a layer of poor soil is present at the surface. Because this layer is unable to hold the load of the building, the loads must be transmitted to the layer of firmer soil or hard rock that lies beneath the weak layer.
When a structure has a lot of large, concentrated loads, such as a high-rise skyscraper, a bridge, or a water tank. To create an appropriate stable foundation, a pile cap is a dense concrete pad that sits on concrete piles or timber piles put into the soft or less-strong ground that would otherwise need ground improvement. It is frequently found in the deep foundation of a building, usually a multi-story structure or at support level or heavy equipment, or in the deep foundation of a bridge.
The load of the building is distributed into the piles by the cast concrete pile top. A "raft," which is a concrete foundation floor sitting directly on soft soil that may be prone to subsidence, is a comparable construction to a pile cap.
Yes, the load-carrying capacity of pile foundation is superior to spread footings. The pile foundation transmits the load to the hard strata.
Pile caps are dense reinforced concrete mats that sit over “concrete or wooden piles (driven, bored, or cast-in-place) to provide foundation stability. The major aim of the pile cap is to transmit the load of the columns to the underlying piles, which is usually too large for large buildings. The pile caps are tested and designed to withstand the load of the superstructure.
A rough foundation is a comparable form of foundation for pile caps. The load from the columns is carried directly through the raft to the mud straight in the case of the raft, which is a dense and broad RCC slab lying immediately at the base. The raft can only be utilised if the soil layer is stable and capable of sustaining large weights without failing; otherwise, piles and pile caps are typically used.
Pile caps are dense reinforced concrete mats that provide foundation stability by resting on concrete or woodpiles (driven or bored and cast-in-situ). These pile cap sizes lower the amount of planning area required for a symmetrical pile layout in relation to the load. The pile cap should allow the outer pile to exceed a minimum of 150 mm, although it should not be excessive, typically not exceeding the pile's diameter.
The depth of pile cap is dependent on the following factors:
Because it is subjected to concentrated loads, the pile cap is usually deeper than the pad footing. This results in substantially stronger bending moments and shear forces. The additional depth, on the other hand, offers the pile top more rigidity, which helps transmit the load uniformly across all piles”.
Pile foundations are classed according to their function, materials, and installation procedure, among other factors. The types of piling foundations utilised in construction are as follows:
Driven piles are driven straight in and transmit the load by friction and/or bearing, whereas bored pier foundations are normally poured in place and transfer the load only through bearing Bored pier foundations are typically shallower than driven pile foundations.
When the top strata consist of degraded rock overlying strata of sound rock, bored pier foundations are preferred. It becomes difficult to drive bearing piles into the decomposed rock in this situation. Bored pier foundations can be easily erected in stiff clays that offer significant resistance to the drive of a bearing pile.
The number of piles required to support the weight determines the plan dimensions of a pile cap. The shape and size of the Pile Caps are normally as below:
The pile should be at least 3 feet wide, 3 feet across, and 3 feet tall in order to reach optimal temperatures (one cubic yard). That is the smallest compost pile that can generate temperatures high enough to kill weeds and pathogens, but smaller compost piles will also work less efficiently.
Determining the thickness of the Pile Cap plays a very important in the process of the Pile Cap Design. The thickness of the pile cap should be adequate enough to comply with the anchorage bond length parameters. As a thumb rule, if the diameter of the pile is less than 550mm, then pile thickness will be twice the diameter of the pile cap. If the diameter of the pile is more than 550mm, then pile thickness will be (1/3 (8 times of pile diameter - 600mm)).
Piling caps are available in a range of sizes. It is recommended to provide 26 sizes of piling caps in two shapes:
To begin, make sure the pilings are at the height you want them to be. Before you measure for the piling caps, make any final cuts. Making cuts afterwards may change the measurement of the pile, resulting in a poor-fitting hat, so make any necessary changes to the heaps before measuring for and purchasing pile caps.
I hope the blog provides you with a sound understanding of the Pile Cap Design and its associated features.
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