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What is soil stabilization and its principles

soil stabilization

Table of Contents

What is soil stabilization? 

What are the principles of soil stabilization? 

Different methods of soil stabilization 

Mechanical Stabilization 

Biological Stabilization 

Chemical Stabilization

Why waste materials are used for soil stabilization? 

What is soil stabilization? 

Soil Stabilization is the biological, chemical or mechanical adjustment of soil engineering features. Within the civil engineering domain, soil stabilization is a technique to modify and enhance the engineering qualities of soils.


These qualities include permeability, mechanical strength, durability, compressibility, and plasticity. Physical improvement is a widespread concept however certain schools of thought would rather use the word ‘stabilization’ in reference to chemical advancements in the soil characteristics by adding chemical mixes.

For every construction project, whether it’s a highway, building, or airfield, the ground behaves as a foundation. Additionally, ground dirt is one of the key construction basic resources. As such, the ground soil should contain qualities that build a robust foundation.

What are the principles of soil stabilization? 

It's called soil stabilization if you utilize controlled compaction, proportioning, and the addition of appropriate admixtures or stabilizers to increase the soil's stability. Physical, physicochemical, and chemical approaches are employed in stabilization in order to make the stabilized soil useful as an engineering material. Evaluate the soil's qualities. Second, determining the most efficient and cost-effective technique of stabilizing a lack of property. Incorporating stability and durability into the stabilized soil mix design. Consider the building process by ensuring that the stabilized layers are properly compacted.

Different methods of soil stabilization 

  • Mechanical stabilization.
  • Chemical Stabilization. ...
  • Polymer Stabilization.

Mechanical Stabilization 

Mechanical soil stabilization is one of the oldest methods. In order to alter the soil's grades, solidity, and many other features, mechanical solutions require physically altering the soil's properties.

Ultimately, dense and well-graded material may be formed by combining and compressing two or more soils of various grades together.

Binding non-cohesive soils are made possible by adding a tiny amount of fine materials, such as clay or silts. Internal friction and incompressibility are provided by sand and gravel particles with angular faces, which can be stabilized by the addition of clay due to its binding capabilities.

The mechanical stability of mixed soil can be affected by a variety of factors, including:

  • The materials' tensile strength and chemical purity.
  • Ratio and grade of components in the mixture.
  • The degree to which dirt is becoming bound
  • Environmental and meteorological variables influence the field's mixing, rolling, and compaction methods.

Biological Stabilization 

Expells air cavities from the soil mass mechanically, resulting in a soil mass that can withstand following loads without additional compression.

It is common practice to use a heavyweight to pound away irregularities in the soil and ensure a consistently compacted surface through a process known as dynamic compaction.

Similar concepts underlie the Vibratory compaction method, which uses vibration rather than kinetic force to achieve its aims.

Chemical Stabilization

Another common method of soil stabilization is the use of chemical solutions. There are a number of ways to improve the soil's physical and chemical qualities, all of which rely on the addition of new material to the soil.

As an example, cement stabilization works best on loose soils because it is difficult to distribute the anhydrous stabilizer evenly in cohesive clays and because the cement paste may encircle and coat bigger granular particles. Cement paste is most successful in these types of soils.

It is more difficult to cover smaller particles in unified soils than anhydrous cement grains. Chemical additives are used in a variety of soil stabilization methods; lime, cement, fly ash, and kiln dust are common additions to soil stabilization methods.

Cementitious or pozzolanic reactions are the most common, depending on the kind of soil present at the location under study. These include calcium and magnesium oxides and hydroxides, which may be produced commercially by calcination of carbonate rock minerals or pressure hydration of dolomitic limestone, which is a mixture of calcium and magnesium oxides. 

Why waste materials are used for soil stabilization? 

Disposal of garbage poses a significant concern in a well-organized environment since it is difficult to know where and how to appropriately dispose of waste material without harming society.

Soil stabilization through the use of solid waste materials has become increasingly popular in recent years as a way of disposing of waste from diverse sources. The stability of soft soil is critical during construction because it serves as an intermediary between the item and the soil.

Wet and dry cycles alternate in soft soils, which have poor shear strength and CBR. This enhances bearing capacity, decreases settlement and helps to minimize soil liquefaction. Geotechnical constructions, including foundations, embankments, pavements, and retaining walls, have made significant advancements since then.

Soil stabilization is necessary because of a variety of issues, including insufficient bearing capacity, high settlement rates after construction, unstable excavations, and expensive construction costs.

Improve the engineering properties of soil by combining stabilizers to boost their load-carrying capacity as well as their weathering resistance through the process of soil stabilization, engineers utilize a variety of stabilizing chemicals to improve the mechanical qualities of soft soil. Hydraulic binders (primary) and non-hydraulic binders (secondary) are additives that react with pozzolanic minerals and water to generate a cementitious composite.

It is noted that agricultural and industrial wastes, among others, are very useful to stabilize the soil. Bagasse ash, rice husk ash, fly ash, coir fibres, human hair fibres, banana fibres, and other such materials are among the many options.

It is necessary to carry out more research to determine the effect of using lime as an activator in conjunction with agasse on soil geotechnical qualities, both in uncured and in treated soil samples.

Adding lime to bagasse ash improves the plasticity index, swelling, and coefficient of frictional resistance (CBR). The strength of the mixture increases over time, reducing the quantity of stabilizing agents needed for road building on soft soil.

I hope this blog helps you to understand Soil Stabilization and its associated information. Please feel free to like, comment and share it.  


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