Table of Contents
Why construction is typical in the Hilly area
Factors to consider for Building Construction in Hilly Terrain/ Regions
Design of Slopes of the Building in the Hilly Area
Materials for Sustainable Construction in the Hills:
Design and Planning of the Building in Hilly Areas
Design and Contour of a Building
Those who live in the hills are those who live on the highest points of land. It's a landform that rises above the rest of its surroundings. Hills have a distinctive ecosystem that is rich in visual resources and biodiversity. Slope, vegetation, flora and fauna, heterogeneity of climate, and land use pattern all play a role in hilltop architecture. In hilly areas, architectural development and urbanization have accelerated in recent years.
The term "hilly" refers to any area that rises above 600 metres above sea level. Construction in hilly areas necessitates meticulous planning, careful consideration of topography, and the use of long-lasting concrete materials.
When contemplating the construction of a building in a hilly area, keep these four considerations in mind:
Selection of a construction site
Inspect for Landslide-Resistant zones
Slope and the order of rock structures are important to look out for.
Determine if water exists beneath the surface.
Check to see if there are any current streams.
It entails a thorough examination of geological maps so that the design team is aware of and comprehends the geological growth of the proposed site.
The geomorphological attributes, prior and current land use, ongoing expansion, construction activities, and issue areas such as former slope failure should all be investigated using a topographic map and aerial mapping of the site and surrounding locations.
The knowledge of the site's history, including previous landslides and subsurface services, is critical for the layout and design planning.
Slope collapse occurs in similar ways in almost every part of the world, with the underlying causes being rather consistent across geological and geographic regions. As a result, the same evaluation, assessment, design, and corrective actions can be used.
The primary distinction is that the climate in tropical locations is hot and rainy, generating deep eroding of the rocks and weakening the slopes. Slope failures on man-made slopes can be caused by a variety of events, including:
Incorrect or missing design, analysis, or construction.
Rainfall with a high intensity
When a community, ecosystem or other interconnected systems can continue to function without depleting essential resources and causing harm to the environment, it is known as sustainable development. Locally available and effortlessly workable building materials that are mostly environmentally-friendly (like wood, bamboo, stone mud, etc) and have decent climatic resistance and therefore should be used for the building construction.
The loss of vegetation in hilly places due to the chopping down of trees for timber must be compensated for by afforestation. Modern materials, on the other hand, are made from raw materials that can only be found in specific places and then shipped across the country.
Construction with a steel framework
Panels of aerated concrete
Plasters made of gypsum
It has always been a problem to plan and design structures on the curves. Thus, the technique is to examine the ridge and valley lines by drawing imaginary yet straight lines. Buildings should be placed in a way, that they are parallel, rather than perpendicular, to the contour lines in order to maximize available space while minimizing cutting and filling.
Compared to the plains, hillside planning is extremely constrained. There are several aspects that influence the design and layout of a site. These include terrain, climate, orientation, traffic flow, usable area, water supply, and natural drains and walkways.
Topography, climate, land availability, and uphill roads prohibiting large-scale urban expansion in environmentally sensitive areas all play a role in how quickly a hill town grows physically.
When planning a project, ensure sure you have enough measures in place to deal with surface water runoff from the site. In order to prevent flooding in your basement or the surrounding area, learn about soakaways and drainage channels online.
The building should be placed along the contour lines of the land to maximize its structural stability and cut down on construction costs.
Depending on the topography, some construction forms are welcomed, while others are rebuffed (Figure 1).
Figure1. Cut and fill technique for developing flat surface.
This can be avoided by using horizontal and vertical devices like stilts, etc. which interrupt the landscape's continuity and make it appear rigid (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Building on stilts addresses the construction on steeply sloping sites.
Because of the sloped topography, the walls of a basement tend to become retaining walls, and this is a common problem. In order to ensure that these constructions are watertight, structural engineers will need to be involved right from the planning stage. Another approach is to use low-level retaining walls, such as gabion walls, to raise the ground (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Stepping the ground slope to provide the basement”
A ridge is defined as a long, narrow crest of a certain object or feature. Mount Everest's southern ridge, visible from Nepal, is an example of a ridge.
The highest point is known as the summit. Summits can be found at the top of the mountains.
Natural slope embankment breast walls are erected to keep soil from sliding down the slope due to extreme weather conditions such as erosion, land sliding, etc.
I hope this post provides you with a good understanding of building construction in the hilly areas.
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