As a Civil Engineer, you must have seen Contour Maps, but do you know what is Contour Map and Contour Interval?
Please read this blog for details.
What is Contour?
Contours are imaginary lines passing through equal elevation points on the ground surface, normally created by using triangulation surface model.
In a simple word when we analyse a 3D surface and observe some equally elevated points and draw a line joining those equal elevation points, the line called contour line. When the contour lines are drawn underwater, they termed as Submarine contours.
What is the Purpose of Contour Maps?
Contour Map explains topography of the ground surface. It assists designers to understand highpoints, low points, hilly terrain, valleys and flat spot locations.
Purpose of Contour Maps of Existing Ground:
- In order to design a new physical infrastructure, it is very important to know where are the low points or high points across the project area. This will help designers to design the levels of the proposed road or railways lines in a similar manner to minimise extensive cuttings or embankments.
- In an urban or rural setting, low lying locations are commonly used for drainage outfalls and connects to existing river or pond or canals. So generating a contour map of existing ground helps designers to plan the proposed drainage network accordingly.
- Low lying areas (close to river or canals) are prone to flooding. Meteorological Departments use Contour Maps to inform the public for flood-prone locations. Design organisations use this information’s plan new infrastructure projects in such a way that further damage or further flooding can be avoided.
Purpose of Contour Maps for Proposed Surface:
- Contour Maps are created to check the design proposals. In Rural Highways or Urban Road Projects, contour maps assist designers to check the flat spots, flow arrows, steep slopes, uneven surface over the junction.
- If flat spots are found within the contour map, it means those locations could create ponding and need to redesign to eliminate flat spots.
- Flow arrow helps drainage designers to identify low points and propose drainage gully pots and kerbs drainage systems accordingly. Its also helps designers to review if the low points are coming across the pedestrian crossing points (at road junction) or not. If they are then it would be recommended to eliminate those low points.
- Steep slopes or sub-standard cross-falls along the footways would not be comfortable for wheelchair and pushchairs users. It is not recommended to provide footway cross-fall of more than 3.3%. So, contour maps are used to check the steep slopes of proposed surfaces.
- Over the urban junction, road cross-fall of primary road joins the cross-fall of secondary road. Therefore, it is very important to design the cross-fall at the interface location precisely and contour maps assist designers to eliminate uneven surfaces and make it a smooth surface.
How to generate Contour Maps?
It is recommended to generate contour maps at 25mm intervals. By doing this it would be very easy to read and review the topography of the surface. To make it an easy to read drawings, it is recommended to show minor contour lines with less prominent colour and without any text for contour interval.
Major contour lines are recommended to show with prominent colour along with texts showing the contour interval value.
How to Read Contour Lines and Calculate Contour Interval?
- Contour lines very close to each other represent steep slopes, whereas contour lines with comparatively larger distance represent gentle slopes. If there is a significant space between two contour lines, then it represents a flat spot location.
- Increasing order of contour interval represents a hilly terrain surface and decreasing order of contour interval represent a valley or ridge type surface.
- Contour lines never cross each other. If you find a location where a contour line crosses another contour line, it means there is an error while generating the contour map. However, contour lines can merge to one point. For example, if there is a vertical cliff at one point, the contour lines will be shown as merging to one point.
- Concentric circles shape of contour line with increasing order of contour interval represents a cone-shaped hilly terrain.
- Concentric circles shape of contour line with decreasing order of contour interval represents a cone-shaped deep valley.
- Equally spaced contour represents a uniform slope and these type of contour maps are commonly seen in a complaint road design proposal. Irregular contour lines represent an uneven ground surface and commonly seen when maps are created from a topographic survey of greenfield land.
What Contour Map does not cover?
- Contour Map does not cover trees, shrubs, plants, etc although these features are recorded within the topographical survey.
- Contour Map does not cover the size and shape of any physical infrastructure such as manholes, gully pots, fencing, lighting poles, etc.
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